Pairing orthodontic adhesive resins and light-curing units for optimal degree of conversion

Pairing orthodontic adhesive resins and light-curing units for optimal degree of conversion

Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the combination of orthodontic adhesive resins and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) that generates the highest level of resin conversion (DC). The hypothesis tested was that the couple resin orthodontic LCUs of the same manufacturer produces a higher DC vs. resin pairs and LCUs.


Method: Pre-polymerization of the spectrum of resin adhesive (Transbond XT [3M Unitek], BracePaste [American Orthodontics] or Opal Bond MV [Opal by Ultradent]) were obtained at oral temperature (37 ° C) using a number of reflectance attenuated (ATR) crystal diamond ( Golden Gate, Specac) in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Nicolet IS50). polymerized resin specimens using various LCUs (Ortholux Luminous [3M Unitek], Blue Ray 3 [American Orthodontics], or Ortho Cordless Valo [Ultradent Products, Inc.]) before obtaining a post-polymerization infrared (IR); spectrum. Twelve-resin combination LCU tested (n = 20 / combinations), and a half with this bracket (Mini Diamond Twin, Ormco) and half without. DC value (%) is calculated using the two-frequency method and technique-base tangent. Data for each resin were statistically analyzed using General Linear Model and the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (α = 0.05).


Results: Statistically significant differences were found in any of resins for the group without brackets are present (P <0.0001), with the brackets present group (P <0.0001), and the group with the brackets when compared with the producer group-paired without bracket (P <0.0001).


Conclusion: The adhesive resin and LCUs from the same manufacturer do not consistently generate the DC value statistically higher mean than the combination pairs. metal brackets are not uniformly reduce the conversion rate of the adhesive resin when assessed using IR spectrometry.

 Pairing orthodontic adhesive resins and light-curing units for optimal degree of conversion
Pairing orthodontic adhesive resins and light-curing units for optimal degree of conversion

Safety and efficacy BioWorma ® (Duddingtonia flagrans NCIMB 30336) as a feed additive for all animal grazing

ollowing a request from the European Commission, EFSA Panel on Additives and products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy BioWorma® (Duddingtonia flagrans NCIMB 30336) when used as a zootechnical feed additive for all animal grazing.

Duddingtonia flagrans nematofagus fungus belongs to a group that physically entrap nematodes through clean adhesive hyphae. additives containing mushrooms in the form of chlamydospores and intended to control pathogenic nematodes in a meadow, with subsequent benefits for grazing animals. No conclusions can be drawn on the safety for the target species due to lack of data.

Since it is impossible to rule out the presence of secondary metabolites (in addition to flagranones) produced during fermentation and their potential carry-over into animal products, safety for consumers can not be set. The panel concluded that the additive is not skin and eye irritant, but irritation of the respiratory tract and respiratory sensitizer. No conclusions can be drawn on the potential for skin sensitization. Since D. flagrans is naturally inhabit the soil organisms of worldwide distribution, the Panel considers that the use of additives based on these organisms do not pose a risk to the environment under the intended conditions of use.

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Under Strain application reduces the amount of parasitic nematodes in grazing pasture for the benefit of animals when used in the recommended application rate of 3 × 104 chlamydospores / kg body weight and day.

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