Acidic Versus Alkaline Bacterial Degradation of Lignin Through Engineered Strain E. coli BL21(Lacc): Exploring the Differences in Chemical Structure, Morphology, and Degradation Products

Acidic Versus Alkaline Bacterial Degradation of Lignin Through Engineered Strain E. coli BL21(Lacc): Exploring the Differences in Chemical Structure, Morphology, and Degradation Products

There is increasing interest in research on biodegradation of lignin compounds as potential building blocks in applications related to renewable products. More attention is needed to evaluate the impact of the initial pH conditions for bacterial degradation of lignin. In this study, we conducted experiments on biodegradation of lignin in acidic and mild alkaline conditions. Biodegradation acid, lignin is chemically pretreated with hydrogen peroxide. alkaline biodegradation achieved by developing the growth of bacteria on Luria and Bertani medium with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source.

Mutant strains of Escherichia coli BL21 (Lacc) is used to carry out the biodegradation of lignin during 10 days of incubation. The results show that under acidic conditions the dominance of aliphatic compounds from C3-C4 species. Alkaline biodegradation produced in the context of oxidative stress, with a larger number of aryl compounds. The final pH value of acid and alkaline biodegradation of lignin were 2.53 and 7.90, respectively. The results of gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis detected compounds such as crotonic acid, lactic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid for acid conditions, with potential applications for adhesives and polymer precursors.

In alkaline conditions, the compounds detected include 2-phenylethanol and dehydroabietic acid, with potential applications for fragrances and tumor / anti-anti-inflammatory drugs. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis showed that the average molecular weight of alkali lignin biodegradation increased 6.75-fold compared with the acid method, resulting in repolymerization of the molecular structure. Lignin repolymerization coincided with an increase in relative abundance and alcohol isovanillyl dehydroabietic acid, of 2.70 and 3.96% on the day zero to 13.43 and 10.26% on the 10th day.

The results of Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy to detect the presence of C = O bonds and OH functional groups associated with the carboxylic acid in acid method. In the alkaline method is no greater preponderance of signals associated with the aromatic framework structure, the amine functional group and a C – O – bonds. Lignin biodegradation product of E. coli BL21 (laccase), under the condition of different initial pH, shows promising potential to enlarge the spectrum of renewable products for biorefinery activities.

 Acidic Versus Alkaline Bacterial Degradation of Lignin Through Engineered Strain E. coli BL21(Lacc): Exploring the Differences in Chemical Structure, Morphology, and Degradation Products
Acidic Versus Alkaline Bacterial Degradation of Lignin Through Engineered Strain E. coli BL21(Lacc): Exploring the Differences in Chemical Structure, Morphology, and Degradation Products

Evaluating the Effect of azole antifungal agents on Stress Response and nano Surface properties anthropi Ochrobactrum Aspcl2.2

Azole antifungal molecules are widely used as active ingredients in various products, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides. This prompted their release into the natural environment. The detailed mechanism of their effect on natural ecosystems biotic components remain unexplored. Our research aims to test the response of Ochrobactrum anthropi AspCl2.2 with the presence of four azole antifungal agents (clotrimazole, fluconazole, climbazole, epoxiconazole).

Experiments conducted on the analysis of cell metabolic activity, cell membrane permeability, the level of total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity. This study allows for the evaluation of the oxidative stress response of cells to the presence of azole antifungals. In addition, changes in the surface properties of nanomaterials, including adhesive and elastic features of the cells, were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometric methods.

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  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S144
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  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S144
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Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Caspase-9 from Human, Monkey. This Caspase-9 antibody is for WB, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S144
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  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S196
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EUR 289.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S196
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Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Caspase-9 from Human. This Caspase-9 antibody is for WB, IHC-P, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S196
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EUR 414.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S196
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Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Caspase-9 from Human. This Caspase-9 antibody is for WB, IHC-P, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from human Caspase-9 around the non-phosphorylation site of S196
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20-abx123445
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
abx125415-50ul 50 ul
EUR 411.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx125612
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx134447
  • EUR 356.00
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx128531
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1107.00
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx128921
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1094.00
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx100471
  • EUR 300.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 759.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 258.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx100472
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1135.00
  • EUR 551.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx100473
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx159358
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx136140
  • EUR 495.00
  • EUR 704.00
  • EUR 356.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 p35 Antibody
20-abx141270
  • EUR 356.00
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx175721
  • EUR 1135.00
  • EUR 551.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx171616
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 787.00
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 154.00
  • EUR 258.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx171617
  • EUR 843.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.
Caspase 9 p35 Antibody
20-abx121860
  • EUR 300.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 189.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Caspase 9 (CASP9) Antibody
20-abx111427
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.
Polyclonal Caspase-9 Antibody
APG02416G 0.1mg
EUR 484.00
Description: A polyclonal antibody raised in Rabbit that recognizes and binds to Human Caspase-9 . This antibody is tested and proven to work in the following applications:
Polyclonal Caspase-9 Antibody
APG02417G 0.1 mg
EUR 659.00
Description: A polyclonal antibody raised in Rabbit that recognizes and binds to Human Caspase-9 . This antibody is tested and proven to work in the following applications:
Polyclonal Caspase-9 Antibody
APG02418G 0.1 mg
EUR 659.00
Description: A polyclonal antibody raised in Rabbit that recognizes and binds to Human Caspase-9 . This antibody is tested and proven to work in the following applications:

The results indicate that oxidative stress promotes bacterial azoles. The strongest difference recorded for cells cultivated with fluconazole. The most toxic effects have been associated with climbazole.

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