Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among agricultural workers.
Agriculture is a large and major industry in Bangladesh. A large number of people are directly involved in agriculture and have very unique exposure compared to other sectors. Musculoskeletal problems among farmers’ populations are not infrequently. This research was conducted between 200 farmers in one selected district. This study revealed that musculoskeletal problems were common among farmers who worked traditional ways. All respondents are men. The age of all respondents is located between 20-60 years.
Among them 22.5% of illiterate farmers, around 45.5% under class V. Around half (42%) of respondents have reported pain in various parts of the body at least one or more times while working on the ground. And about the third two (65.5%) of the farmers have a history of joint pain and rigidity in the past 12 months. Most farmers who suffer from musculoskeletal symptoms are 41-60 years. Especially those who work more than 20 years (82.6%) and an average of 6 hours per day (66.7%).
The occurrence of musculoskeletal problems in various parts of the body including knee pain – 48.1%, back pain (back pain) – 22.9%, low back pain (back pain) – 13.3%, neck pain – 10.3% and pain shoulder – 10.7%. Long work in the year and daily average working hours found significant relationships with musculoskeletal pain. It was found that musculoskeletal pain was more common among farmers when they worked in a squat position (52%) and especially during plant weeding (31%). Among them only 22% were also involved in other businesses. Most farmers complained of dull pain (40.6%), only 2.3% were considered with severe acute pain, but around 86% while stopping their work for pain and 80% relieved after stopping work.
About 75% of respondents visited the doctor because their pain was statistically significant (p = 0.001). It was found that the level of musculoskeletal complaints was more among the people who worked with relatively poor ergonomic conditions, such as the position of the body that might play an important role.
Determination of patulin in fruit juice using the HPLC-Father and GC-MSD technique.
High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometers (GC-MSD) is explained for determining patulin (PAT) in apple juice. Detection limit (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-Father and GC-MSD method found (DL = 0.23μgkg (-1) QL = 1.2μgkg (-1)) and (dl = 5.8μgkg (-1) and QL = 13.8μgkg (-1)), respectively. Recovery factors for HPLC-father and GC-MSD were found 99.5% (RSD% = 0.73) and 41% (RSD% = 10.03), respectively. The HPLC-DAD method is used to determine the occurrence of pat in 90 samples of fruit juice.
The results reveal the existence of pat to 100% of the sample checked. The average value of pat in concentrated fruit juice and in commercial fruit juice collected from the Greek market each is 10.54μg Pat KG (-1) and 5.57 μg Pat KG (-1). The most frequently contaminated sample is four concentrated juices starting from 18.10 μg Pat KG (-1) up to 36.8 μg Pat KG (-1) juice.
Patulin daily exposure to consumers of all ages in Greece, starting from 0.008 μg Pat Kg (-1) BB to 0.1 μg Pat kg (-1) BW If the daily intake of fruit juice is from 0.1 to 0.5kg. With the exception of the most contaminated samples, daily exposure because the sample was examined, under the daily intake of maximum tolerated temporary to PAT (0.4 μg Pat KG (-1) BW).
Evaluation of Elisa Monoclonal Antibody Basis Sandwich (MSD-ELISA) for detection of antigen virus and mouth disease using clinical samples.
The monoclonal-based Sandwich Direct (MSD-ELISA) method was previously developed for detection of virus antigen (FMD). Here we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of two detection of the MSD-Elisas FMD virus antigen and compare it with conventional indirect sandwiches (is) -Edaisa. MSD-Elisas can detect antigens in saliva samples from experimental infected pigs for the long term compared to Is-Elisa.
We also use 178 positive samples of RT-PCR fields from livestock and pigs that are influenced by the 2010 type-O FMD outbreak in Japan, and we find that the sensitivity of the MSD-Elisas is around 7 times higher than the IS-ELISA against each sample (p <0 , 01). In terms of FMD-positive agricultural detection rates, the sensitivity of the MSD-Elisas is around 6 times higher than the IS-ELISA to each agriculture (P <0.01). Although it is necessary to conduct further validation studies using other virus strains, MSD-Elisas can be appropriate as a method to replace Is-Elisa for FMD antigen detection.
Prevention of MSD in OHSMS / IMS: Systematic Overview of Risk Assessment Strategy.
The purpose of this systematic review is to identify and summarize evidence of research on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the work and safety management system (OHSMS) and integrated management system (IMS). Databases in business, management, engineering and health and safety are systematically sought and relevant publications are synthesized.
Number of paper that can overcome small research questions. However, the review revealed that many techniques to overcome the hazards of MSD require substantial background knowledge and training. This can limit employee involvement in the technical aspects of the risk assessment process. Also these techniques are usually not in accordance with the techniques used by companies to address other risk factors in their management system.
This can cause MSD prevention to be a separate problem that cannot be managed with tools throughout the company. In addition, this review also suggested that there was a research gap on MSD prevention in the company’s management system.